[DWJ] Re: Gotten, was Re: DWJ on Bujold
philip at axeside.co.uk
Fri May 16 16:07:51 EDT 2008
Belatedly emerging from lurkdom as I catch up on the list...
> 'Verbs that go to en' once led to me making a list, I forget why, and to my
> astonishment it is still around in a file called 'en-words'.
> bound, bounden (for bounded) deliberately archaic
Er, doesn't "bounden" come from "bind" - "bounden duty", "Adam lay
ybounden" and so on?
> Braze, brazen (for brazed) deliberately archaic
> carve, carven (for carved) deliberately archaic
> chide, chidden deliberately archaic
> drive, driven normal
> get, gotten (for got) deliberately archaic
> give, given normal
> prove, proven (for proved) deliberately archaic
According to Fowler, proven is the past participle of the archaic
Scottish verb to preve (preeve?). Prove makes proved.
> rive, riven deliberately archaic
> strive, ? striven (?for strived?) deliberately archaic
> write, written normal
> bright, brighten normal
> fright, frighten normal
> heighten (not "height" as a verb) normal
> lighten (ditto) normal
> light down, lighten down (for lighted down) deliberately archaic
First I would say you ought to distinguish verbs which form the past
participle in -en (your list as far as write) from verbs whose
infinitive is formed by tacking -en onto an adjective (all your -ighten
verbs). Fowler has a wonderful article on the latter, which I would
quote except that my copy is at the office, but he points out that we
can say redden and blacken but not bluen or greenen, thicken and fatten
but not thinnen or leanen, and a whole long list that I find highly poetic.
On strong verbs that form the past participle in -en, they go in
families. There are several you've missed:
ride, ridden; hide, hidden; bid, bidden ("bide" makes "bided")
take, taken; shake, shaken; but make, made.
speak, spoken; break, broken; wake, woken.
shave, shaven; grave, graven: both archaisms (like carve, carven) except
in a few contexts.
OK, that's as many as I can think of offhand. Two interesting points
about specific examples, though.
First, "hidden" has been having almost the opposite experience to
"gotten". The Prayer Book has a prayer that starts, "Almighty God, to
whom all hearts be open, all desires known, and from whom no secrets are
hid". (This prayer is also notable for using the phrase "Holy Spirit"
where Cranmer consistently used "Holy Ghost", but I digress.) Modern
versions of the prayer not only change the meaning by replacing the
subjunctive "be" with an indicative "are" but also say "from whom no
secrets are hidden".
The other interesting case is "woken". I only conducted a very small
survey - one internet list and one internet bulletin board - but I
found, as I suspected, that an overwhelming majority of English speakers
say "woken". The OED has a reasonable majority of "woken" in its
quotations - a large majority if you discount instances where metre
requires a monosyllable. But textbooks and educational software often
have a strange preference for "waked".
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